Charities Act 2011
Charitable Incorporated Organisation
Constitution of the Martlesham Heath Aviation Society
Date of constitution: 15 July 2019 (date of establishment)
The name of the Charitable Incorporated Organisation (“the CIO”) is Martlesham Heath Aviation Society.
2. National location of principal office
The CIO must have a principal office in England or Wales. The principal office of the CIO is in England.
The objects of the CIO are:
(1) The preservation for the public benefit of the historical features of the former Martlesham Heath
Airfield including the WW2 Control Tower
(2) The advancement of education for the public benefit by the provision of a museum and a learning
environment and associated activities
The CIO has power to do anything which is calculated to further its objects or is conducive or incidental to
doing so. In particular, the CIO has power to:
(1) borrow money and to charge the whole or any part of its property as security for the repayment of
the money borrowed. The CIO must comply as appropriate with sections 124 and 125 of the Charities
Act 2011, if it wishes to mortgage land;
(2) buy, take on lease or in exchange, hire or otherwise acquire any property and to maintain and equip it
(3) sell, lease or otherwise dispose of all or any part of the property belonging to the CIO. In exercising
this power, the CIO must comply as appropriate with sections 117 and 119-
(4) employ and remunerate such staff as are necessary for carrying out the work of the CIO. The CIO may
employ or remunerate a charity trustee only to the extent that it is permitted to do so by clause 6
(Benefits and payments to charity trustees and connected persons) and provided it complies with the
conditions of that clause;
(5) deposit or invest funds, employ a professional fund-
other property of the CIO to be held in the name of a nominee, in the same manner and subject to
the same conditions as the trustees of a trust are permitted to do by the Trustee Act 2000.
5. Application of income and property
(1) The income and property of the CIO must be applied solely towards the promotion of the objects.
(a) A charity trustee is entitled to be reimbursed from the property of the CIO or may pay out of
such property reasonable expenses properly incurred by him or her when acting on behalf
of the CIO.
(b) A charity trustee may benefit from trustee indemnity insurance cover purchased at the CIO’s
expense in accordance with, and subject to the conditions in, section 189 of the Charities Act
(2) None of the income or property of the CIO may be paid or transferred directly or indirectly by way
of dividend, bonus or otherwise by way of profit to any member of the CIO.
(3) Nothing in this clause shall prevent a charity trustee or connected person receiving any benefit
or payment which is authorised by Clause 6.
6. Benefits and payments to charity trustees and connected persons
(1) General provisions
No charity trustee or connected person may:
(a) buy or receive any goods or services from the CIO on terms preferential to those applicable to
members of the public;
(b) sell goods, services, or any interest in land to the CIO;
(c) be employed by, or receive any remuneration from, the CIO;
(d) receive any other financial benefit from the CIO;
unless the payment or benefit is permitted by sub-
court or the prior written consent of the Charity Commission (“the Commission”) has been
obtained. In this clause, a “financial benefit” means a benefit, direct or indirect, which is either
money or has a monetary value.
(2) Scope and powers permitting trustees’ or connected persons’ benefits
(a) A charity trustee or connected person may receive a benefit from the CIO as a beneficiary of
the CIO provided that it is available generally to the beneficiaries of the CIO.
(b) A charity trustee or connected person may enter into a contract for the supply of services, or of
goods that are supplied in connection with the provision of services, to the CIO where that is
permitted in accordance with, and subject to the conditions in, sections 185 to 188 of the
Charities Act 2011.
(c) Subject to sub-
CIO with goods that are not supplied in connection with services provided to the CIO by the
charity trustee or connected person.
(d) A charity trustee or connected person may receive interest on money lent to the CIO at a
reasonable and proper rate which must be not more than the Bank of England bank rate (also
known as the base rate).
(e) A charity trustee or connected person may receive rent for premises let by the trustee or
connected person to the CIO. The amount of the rent and the other terms of the lease must be
reasonable and proper. The charity trustee concerned must withdraw from any meeting at
which such a proposal or the rent or other terms of the lease are under discussion.
(f) A charity trustee or connected person may take part in the normal trading and fundraising
activities of the CIO on the same terms as members of the public.
(3) Payment for supply of goods only – controls
The CIO and its charity trustees may only rely upon the authority provided by sub-
this clause if each of the following conditions is satisfied:
(a) The amount or maximum amount of the payment for the goods is set out in a written agreement
between the CIO and the charity trustee or connected person supplying the goods (“the
(b) The amount or maximum amount of the payment for the goods does not exceed what is
reasonable in the circumstances for the supply of the goods in question.
(c) The other charity trustees are satisfied that it is in the best interests of the CIO to contract
with the supplier rather than with someone who is not a charity trustee or connected person.
In reaching that decision the charity trustees must balance the advantage of contracting
with a charity trustee or connected person against the disadvantages of doing so.
(d) The supplier is absent from the part of any meeting at which there is discussion of the
proposal to enter into a contract or arrangement with him or her or it with regard to the
supply of goods to the CIO.
(e) The supplier does not vote on any such matter and is not to be counted when calculating
whether a quorum of charity trustees is present at the meeting.
(f) The reason for their decision is recorded by the charity trustees in the minute book.
(g) A majority of the charity trustees then in office are not in receipt of remuneration or
payments authorised by this clause 6.
(4) In sub-
(a) “the CIO” includes any company in which the CIO:
(i) holds more than 50% of the shares; or
(ii) controls more than 50% of the voting rights attached to the shares; or
(iii) has the right to appoint one or more directors to the board of the company;
(b) “connected person” includes any person within the definition set out in clause 31
7. Conflicts of interest and conflicts of loyalty
A charity trustee must:
(1) declare the nature and extent of any interest, direct or indirect, which he or she has in a proposed
transaction or arrangement with the CIO or in any transaction or arrangement entered into by the CIO
which has not previously been declared; and
(2) absent himself or herself from any discussions of the charity trustees in which it is possible that a
conflict of interest will arise between his or her duty to act solely in the interests of the CIO and any
personal interest (including but not limited to any financial interest).
Any charity trustee absenting himself or herself from any discussions in accordance with this clause must not
vote or be counted as part of the quorum in any decision of the charity trustees on the matter.
8. Liability of members to contribute to the assets of the CIO if it is wound up
If the CIO is wound up, the members of the CIO have no liability to contribute to its assets and no personal
responsibility for settling its debts and liabilities.
9. Charity trustees
(1) Functions and duties of charity trustees
The charity trustees shall manage the affairs of the CIO and may for that purpose exercise all the
powers of the CIO. It is the duty of each charity trustee:
(a) to exercise his or her powers and to perform his or her functions in his or her capacity as a
trustee of the CIO in the way he or she decides in good faith would be most likely to further
the purposes of the CIO; and
(b) to exercise, in the performance of those functions, such care and skill as is reasonable in the
circumstances having regard in particular to:
(i) any special knowledge or experience that he or she has or holds himself or herself
out as having; and,
(ii) if he or she acts as a charity trustee of the CIO in the course of a business or
profession, to any special knowledge or experience that it is reasonable to expect of
a person acting in the course of that kind of business or profession.
(2) Eligibility for trusteeship
(a) Every charity trustee must be a natural person.
(b) No individual may be appointed as a charity trustee of the CIO:
• if he or she is under the age of 16 years; or
• if he or she would automatically cease to hold office under the provisions of clause 12(1)(e)
(c) No one is entitled to act as a charity trustee whether on appointment or on any re-
until he or she has expressly acknowledged, in whatever way the charity trustees decide, his or
her acceptance of the office of charity trustee.
(3) Number of charity trustees
(a) There must be at least three charity trustees. If the number falls below this minimum, the
remaining trustee or trustees may act only to call a meeting of the charity trustees, or appoint
a new charity trustee.
(b) The maximum number of charity trustees is 13. The charity trustees may not appoint any
charity trustee if as a result the number of charity trustees would exceed the maximum.
Three of the charity trustees may be appointed as Officers of the CIO in accordance with clause
10(5). For the avoidance of doubt, the Officers are included in the minimum and maximum charity
trustee numbers specified in clause 9(3).
(5) First charity trustees
The first charity trustees are as follows:
Martyn Cook Peter Morris
Bob Dunnett Colin Whitmore
Alan Powell Ian Lisseman
Pat Lisseman Brian Gray
Vicky Gunnell Robert Alexander
who, subject to the provisions of clause 12, shall each serve for a term of three years beginning with
the date of the CIO’s establishment. Each of them is eligible for reappointment in accordance with
clauses 10(1) and 12(2).
10. Appointment of charity trustees and Officers
(1) Subject to clause 9(5) above, every charity trustee shall be appointed by the charity trustees, either
by a resolution passed at a properly convened meeting or in writing. Each charity trustee shall be
appointed for a term of three years, unless at the time of appointment the charity trustees determine
that a shorter term is appropriate in the circumstances.
(2) The details of any appointment, retirement or other change in the charity trustees shall be given to
the Associate Members at the Annual Associate Members’ Meeting following any such change.
(3) Any Associate Member may nominate an individual for appointment as a charity trustee, which
shall be considered by the charity trustees when a vacancy arises. Such nominations must be
signed by the Associate Member and the individual who is so nominated. Any such nominations:
(a) must be made in accordance with any rules agreed by the charity trustees from time,
including any date by which nominations must be received; and
(b) are subject to the approval of the charity trustees, whose decision is final and who shall not
be required to give any reason for their decision.
For the avoidance of doubt, the charity trustees may appoint a charity trustee without having
received such a nomination.
(4) In selecting individuals for appointment as charity trustees, the charity trustees must have regard to
the skills, knowledge and experience needed for the effective administration of the CIO.
(5) The charity trustees may agree to elect from amongst their number the following Officers:
(b) Secretary; and
and any other Officers, and each for such term, as the charity trustees may determine. The term
of any Officer shall terminate automatically if he or she ceases to be a charity trustee.
(6) An Officer may resign as an Officer (whilst remaining a charity trustee) by giving notice to the
other charity trustees. The charity trustees may also revoke the election of an Officer, prior to the
end of his or her term as a charity trustee, where they consider it to be in best interests of the CIO
to do so.
(7) The details of any change in the Officers of the CIO shall be given to the Associate Members at
the Annual Associate Members’ Meeting following any such change.
11. Information for new charity trustees
The charity trustees will make available to each new charity trustee, on or before his or her first appointment:
(a) a copy of the current version of this constitution; and
(b) a copy of the CIO’s latest Trustees’ Annual Report and statement of accounts.
12. Retirement and removal of charity trustees
(1) A charity trustee ceases to hold office if he or she:
(a) retires by notifying the CIO in writing (but only if enough charity trustees will remain in office
when the notice of resignation takes effect to form a quorum for meetings);
(b) is absent without the permission of the charity trustees from all their meetings held within a
period of six months and the trustees resolve that his or her office be vacated;
(d) in the written opinion, given to the company, of a registered medical practitioner treating that
person, has become physically or mentally incapable of acting as a director and may remain so
for more than three months;
(e) is disqualified from acting as a charity trustee by virtue of sections 178-
Act 2011 (or any statutory re-
(2) A person retiring as a charity trustee is eligible for reappointment.
13. Taking of decisions by charity trustees
Any decision may be taken either:
(1) at a meeting of the charity trustees; or
(2) by resolution in writing or electronic form agreed by a majority of all of the charity trustees, which
may comprise either a single document or several documents containing the text of the resolution in
like form to which the majority of all of the charity trustees has signified their agreement. Such a
resolution shall be effective provided that:
(a) a copy of the proposed resolution has been sent, at or as near as reasonably practicable to
the same time, to all of the charity trustees; and
(b) the majority of all of the charity trustees has signified agreement to the resolution in a
document or documents which has or have been authenticated by their signature, by a
statement of their identity accompanying the document or documents, or in such other manner
as the charity trustees have previously resolved, and delivered to the CIO at its principal office
or such other place as the trustees may resolve.
14. Delegation by charity trustees
(1) The charity trustees may delegate any of their powers or functions to a committee or
committees, and, if they do, they shall determine the terms and conditions on which the
delegation is made. The charity trustees may at any time alter those terms and conditions, or revoke
(2) This power is in addition to the power of delegation in the General Regulations and any other power of
delegation available to the charity trustees, but is subject to the following requirements:
(a) a committee may consist of two or more persons, but at least one member of each
committee must be a charity trustee;
(b) the acts and proceedings of any committee must be brought to the attention of the charity
trustees as a whole as soon as is reasonably practicable; and
(c) the charity trustees shall from time to time review the arrangements which they have made
for the delegation of their powers.
15. Meetings of charity trustees
(1) Calling meetings
(a) Any charity trustee may call a meeting of the charity trustees.
(b) Subject to that, the charity trustees shall decide how their meetings are to be called, and what
notice is required.
(2) Chairing of meetings
The Chair (referred to in clause 10(5) above) shall chair charity trustee meetings. If no-
been so appointed, or if the person appointed is unwilling to preside or is not present within 10
minutes after the time of the meeting, the charity trustees present may appoint one of their number to
chair that meeting.
(3) Procedure at meetings
(a) No decision shall be taken at a meeting unless a quorum is present at the time when the
decision is taken. The quorum is two charity trustees, or the number nearest to one third of
the total number of charity trustees, whichever is greater, or such larger number as the charity
trustees may decide from time to time. A charity trustee shall not be counted in the quorum
present when any decision is made about a matter upon which he or she is not entitled to
(b) Questions arising at a meeting shall be decided by a majority of those eligible to vote.
(c) In the case of an equality of votes, the person who chairs the meeting shall have a second
or casting vote.
(4) Participation in meetings by electronic means
(a) A meeting may be held by suitable electronic means agreed by the charity trustees in which
each participant may communicate with all the other participants.
(b) Any charity trustee participating at a meeting by suitable electronic means agreed by the
charity trustees in which a participant or participants may communicate with all the other
participants shall qualify as being present at the meeting.
(c) Meetings held by electronic means must comply with rules for meetings, including chairing
and the taking of minutes.
16. Membership of the CIO
(1) The members of the CIO shall be its charity trustees for the time being. The only persons eligible to
be members of the CIO are its charity trustees. Membership of the CIO cannot be transferred to
(2) Any member and charity trustee who ceases to be a charity trustee automatically ceases to be a
member of the CIO.
17. Associate Members (non-
(1) The CIO shall also have a class of non-
shall be open to any person who:
(a) supports the CIO’s objects;
(b) has paid the membership subscription which may be agreed by the charity trustees from
time to time; and
(c) is approved by the charity trustees (or a person to whom they have delegated authority for this
(2) The charity trustees shall hold an Annual Associate Members’ Meeting each year to which all
Associate Members shall be invited (unless for any reason in any particular year the charity trustees
determine that such a meeting should not be held). The Annual Associate Members’ Meeting shall be
an opportunity for Associate Members to review the CIO’s activities during the previous year; to be
informed about changes to the charity trustees or Officers (as provided for in clause 10 above); and to
discuss any other matters proposed by the charity trustees.
(3) The charity trustees may determine the rights and obligations of Associate Members (including
payment of subscriptions); any further conditions for or relating to the admission to Associate
Membership; and any conditions for or relating to the termination of Associate Membership.
(2) Other references in this constitution to “members” and “membership” (as opposed to
‘Associate Members’ or ‘Associate Membership’) do not apply to Associate Members, who are
not and do not qualify as members for any purpose under the Charities Acts, General Regulations
or Dissolution Regulations.
18. Decisions which must be made by the members of the CIO
(1) Any decision to:
(a) amend the constitution of the CIO;
(b) amalgamate the CIO with, or transfer its undertaking to, one or more other CIOs, in accordance
with the Charities Act 2011; or
(c) wind up or dissolve the CIO (including transferring its business to any other charity)
must be made by a resolution of the members of the CIO (rather than a resolution of the charity
(2) Decisions of the members may be made either:
(a) by resolution at a general meeting; or
(b) by resolution in writing, in accordance with sub-
(3) Any decision specified in sub-
provisions of clause 29 (Amendment of Constitution), clause 30 (Voluntary winding up or
dissolution), or the provisions of the Charities Act 2011, the General Regulations or the Dissolution
Regulations as applicable. Those provisions require the resolution to be agreed by a 75%
majority of those members voting at a general meeting, or agreed by all members in writing.
(4) Except where a resolution in writing must be agreed by all the members, such a resolution may be
agreed by a simple majority of all the members who are entitled to vote on it. Such a resolution shall
be effective provided that:
(a) a copy of the proposed resolution has been sent to all the members eligible to vote; and
(b) the required majority of members has signified its agreement to the resolution in a document
or documents which are received at the principal office within the period of 28 days
beginning with the circulation date. The document signifying a member’s agreement must be
authenticated by their signature, by a statement of their identity accompanying the document,
or in such other manner as the CIO has specified.
(5) The resolution in writing may comprise several copies to which one or more members has signified their
agreement. Eligibility to vote on the resolution is limited to members who are members of the CIO on the
date when the proposal is first circulated.
(6) For the avoidance of doubt, every member of the CIO has one vote.
19. General meetings of members
(1) Calling of general meetings of members
The charity trustees may designate any of their meetings as a general meeting of the members of the
CIO. The purpose of such a meeting is to discharge any business which must by law be discharged by a
resolution of the members of the CIO as specified in clause 18 (Decisions which must be made by the
members of the CIO).
(2) Notice of general meetings of members
(a) The minimum period of notice required to hold a general meeting of the members of the CIO is
(b) Except where a specified period of notice is strictly required by another clause in this
constitution, by the Charities Act 2011 or by the General Regulations, a general meeting may
be called by shorter notice if it is so agreed by a majority of the members of the CIO.
(c) Proof that an envelope containing a notice was properly addressed, prepaid and posted; or
that an electronic form of notice was properly addressed and sent, shall be conclusive
evidence that the notice was given. Notice shall be deemed to be given 48 hours after it was
posted or sent.
(3) Procedure at general meetings of members
The provisions in clause 15(2) to 15(4) governing the chairing of meetings, procedure at meetings
and participation in meetings by electronic means apply to any general meeting of the members,
with all references to trustees to be taken as references to members.
20. Honorary roles
The charity trustees may agree to confer on any individual (not being a charity trustee) an honorary title in
respect of the CIO, including a President, for such term (or none) as they may determine and may also
remove any such title from any individual.
21. Saving provisions
(1) Subject to sub-
charity trustees, shall be valid notwithstanding the participation in any vote of a charity trustee:
(a) who was disqualified from holding office;
(b) who had previously retired or who had been obliged by the constitution to vacate office;
(c) who was not entitled to vote on the matter, whether by reason of a conflict of interest or
if, without the vote of that charity trustee and that charity trustee being counted in the quorum, the
decision has been made by a majority of the charity trustees at a quorate meeting.
conferred upon him or her by a resolution of the charity trustees or of a committee of charity trustees
if, but for sub-
complied with clause7 (Conflicts of interest).
22. Execution of documents
(1) The CIO shall execute documents either by signature or by affixing its seal (if it has one)
(2) A document is validly executed by signature if it is signed by at least two of the charity trustees.
(3) If the CIO has a seal:
(a) it must comply with the provisions of the General Regulations; and
(b) the seal must only be used by the authority of the charity trustees or of a committee of charity
trustees duly authorised by the charity trustees. The charity trustees may determine who shall
sign any document to which the seal is affixed and unless otherwise so determined it shall be
signed by two charity trustees.
23. Use of electronic communications
(1) The CIO will comply with the requirements of the Communications Provisions in the General
Regulations and in particular:
(a) the requirement to provide within 21 days to any member on request a hard copy of any
document or information sent to the member otherwise than in hard copy form; and
(b) any requirements to provide information to the Commission in a particular form or
(3) Any member or charity trustee of the CIO may communicate electronically with the CIO to an
address specified by the CIO for the purpose, so long as the communication is authenticated in a
manner which is satisfactory to the CIO.
(4) Any member or charity trustee of the CIO, by providing the CIO with his or her email address or
similar, is taken to have agreed to receive communications from the CIO in electronic form at
that address, unless the member has indicated to the CIO his or her unwillingness to receive
such communications in that form.
24. Keeping of Registers
The CIO must comply with its obligations under the General Regulations in relation to the keeping of, and
provision of access to, a (combined) register of its members and charity trustees.
The charity trustees must keep minutes of all:
(1) appointments of officers made by the charity trustees;
(2) proceedings at general meetings of the CIO;
(3) meetings of the charity trustees and committees of charity
(i) the names of the trustees present at the meeting;
(ii) the decisions made at the meetings and where appropriate the reasons for the
(iii) decisions made by the charity trustees otherwise than in meetings.
26. Accounting records, accounts, annual reports and returns, register maintenance
(1) The charity trustees must comply with the requirements of the Charities Act 2011 with regard to the
keeping of accounting records, to the preparation and scrutiny of statements of account, and to
the preparation of annual reports and returns. The statements of account, reports and returns must be
sent to the Charity Commission, regardless of the income of the CIO, within 10 months of the
financial year end.
(2) The charity trustees must comply with their obligation to inform the Commission within 28 days of any
change in the particulars of the CIO entered on the Central Register of Charities.
The charity trustees may from time to time make such reasonable and proper rules or byelaws as they may
deem necessary or expedient for the proper conduct and management of the CIO, but such rules or bye laws
must not be inconsistent with any provision of this constitution. Copies of any such rules or bye laws
currently in force must be made available to any member of the CIO on request.
If a dispute arises between members of the CIO about the validity or propriety of anything done by the
members under this constitution, and the dispute cannot be resolved by agreement, the parties to the dispute
must first try in good faith to settle the dispute by mediation before resorting to litigation.
29. Amendment of constitution
As provided by sections 224-
(1) This constitution can only be amended:
(a) by resolution agreed in writing by all members of the CIO; or
(b) by a resolution passed by a 75% majority of those voting at a general meeting of the members
of the CIO called in accordance with clause 19 (General meetings of members).
(2) Any alteration of clause 3 (Objects), clause 30 (Voluntary winding up or dissolution), this
clause, or of any provision where the alteration would provide authorisation for any benefit to
be obtained by charity trustees or members of the CIO or persons connected with them,
requires the prior written consent of the Charity Commission.
(3) No amendment that is inconsistent with the provisions of the Charities Act 2011 or the General
Regulations shall be valid.
(4) A copy of every resolution amending the constitution, together with a copy of the CIO’s
constitution as amended must be sent to the Commission by the end of the period of 15 days
beginning with the date of passing of the resolution, and the amendment does not take effect until
it has been recorded in the Register of Charities.
30. Voluntary winding up or dissolution
(1) As provided by the Dissolution Regulations, the CIO may be dissolved by resolution of its members.
Any decision by the members to wind up or dissolve the CIO can only be made:
(a) at a general meeting of the members of the CIO called in accordance with clause 19
(General meetings of members), of which not less than 14 days’ notice has been given to
those eligible to attend and vote:
(i) by a resolution passed by a 75% majority of those voting, or
(ii) by a resolution passed by decision taken without a vote and without any expression of
dissent in response to the question put to the general meeting; or
(iii) by a resolution agreed in writing by all members of the CIO.
(2) Subject to the payment of all the CIO’s debts:
(a) Any resolution for the winding up of the CIO, or for the dissolution of the CIO without winding
up, may contain a provision directing how any remaining assets of the CIO shall be applied.
(b) If the resolution does not contain such a provision, the charity trustees must decide how any
remaining assets of the CIO shall be applied.
(c) In either case the remaining assets must be applied for charitable purposes the same as or
similar to those of the CIO.
(3) The CIO must observe the requirements of the Dissolution Regulations in applying to the
Commission for the CIO to be removed from the Register of Charities, and in particular:
(a) the charity trustees must send with their application to the Commission:
(i) a copy of the resolution passed by the members of the CIO;
(ii) a declaration by the charity trustees that any debts and other liabilities of the CIO
have been settled or otherwise provided for in full; and
(iii) a statement by the charity trustees setting out the way in which any property of the
CIO has been or is to be applied prior to its dissolution in accordance with this
(b) the charity trustees must ensure that a copy of the application is sent within seven days to
every member and employee of the CIO, and to any charity trustee of the CIO who was not privy
to the application.
(4) If the CIO is to be wound up or dissolved in any other circumstances, the provisions of the
Dissolution Regulations must be followed.
In this constitution:
Section 118 of the Charities Act 2011 applies for the purposes of interpreting the terms used in this
“Associate Member” refers to a non-
“Annual Associate Member Meeting” means a meeting of the Associate Members as referred to in
“charity trustee” means a charity trustee of the CIO.
The “Communications Provisions” means the Communications Provisions in Part 9 of the General
“connected person” means:
(a) a child, parent, grandchild, grandparent, brother or sister of the charity trustee;
(b) the spouse or civil partner of the charity trustee or of any person falling within sub-
(c) a person carrying on business in partnership with the charity trustee or with any person
falling within sub-
(d) an institution which is controlled –
(i) by the charity trustee or any connected person falling within sub-
(ii) by two or more persons falling within sub-
(d)(i), when taken together
(e) a body corporate in which –
(i) the charity trustee or any connected person falling within sub-
substantial interest; or
(ii) two or more persons falling within sub-
a substantial interest.
“Dissolution Regulations” means the Charitable Incorporated Organisations (Insolvency and
Dissolution) Regulations 2012.
“General Regulations” means the Charitable Incorporated Organisations (General)
“Officer” means an officer of the CIO as referred to in clauses 9(4) and 10(5).
A “poll” means a counted vote or ballot, usually (but not necessarily) in writing.